Biographical Dictionary of Cincinnati Architects, 1788-1940
Author: Walter E. Langsam
Contemporary photographs: Alice Weston
Editors: Susannah Sachdeva and Sue Ann Painter
Publisher: Architectural Foundation of
Saarinen & Saarinen | William Salway | Thomas Sargent | Moritz Sax | George Frederick Schatz | Edward Schlochtemeyer | Elmer Henry Schmidt | Carl Schmuelling | George W. Schofield | William Schuberth Jr. | Edward J. Schulte | D.S. Schureman | Montgomery Schuyler | Oscar Schwartz | T.R. Scowden | Sears, Roebucke & Co. | John F. Sheblessy | Louise Shelton | Henry R. Shepley | Gordon Sheppard | Charles W. Short, Jr. | Louis A. Simon | H.E. Siter | Louis Skidmore | F. Patterson Smith | Oliver C. Smith | Herbert Spielman | Issac Stagge | H.J. Stanley | Rudolph Stanley-Brown | Edwin Paul Starbuck | Clifford M. Stegner | John B. Steinkamp | Joseph G. Steinkamp | J. Walter Stevens | James and Robert Stewart | William H. Stewart | Frederick W. Stickney | Joseph Earl Stith | Adolph Strauch | Carl A. Strauss | John P. Stryker | Charles R. Strong | BIBLIOGRAPHY
Saarinen & Saarinen
(Eliel: Rantasalmi, Finland, 1873-1950; Eero: Kirkkonummi, Finland, 1910-1961)
Proposed a design for Christ Episcopal Church, NEC Fourth and Sycamore streets in downtown Cincinnati in 1948—a model as well as drawings remain (at the church or the Cincinnati Historical Society)—but this design was rejected in favor of the present building, originally even more garish than it is after several renovations, by David Briggs Maxfield of Oxford, Oh.
Macmillan Encyclopedia, III, 625-33 (by R. Craig Miller);
R.G. Wilson (1984), 166-67 on Eliel (by J. MacDougall Pratt, 196-97 on Eero (by William Lebovich);
Van Vlynckt, ed. (1993), I, Eliel: 766-69 (by Geoffrey M. Wittkopp), on Eero: 763-66 (by Peter Papademetriou);
Merkel, Saarinen (2005);
Painter, Sullebarger, Merkel, AIC (2006), 177, 182, 199, 235, 237, 238, 239, 243, 273, 283, 305.
Landscape architect and superintendent of Spring Grove Cemetery in the late 19th century. He was in charge of the Cedar Hill Cemetery in Hartford, Conn., founded about 1875 by his predecessor Jacob Weidenmann, 1873-1883, before moving to Cincinnati. A large brick “Queen Anne”-style house built on the grounds for Salway was designed by Samuel Hannaford, who lived nearby in Winton Woods, but it was demolished in the mid 1980s.
In his The Suburbs of Cincinnati, Sidney D. Maxwell (1870, reprint 1974) attributes the William C. Neff mansion, "The Windings," part of the former Sacred Heart Academy complex on Lafayette Avenue, Clifton, to Sargent; but the house itself is a copy reversed left-to-right of “Rockwood” (not “Rookwood”), a splendid stone Gothic Revival villa on the Hudson designed by Anglo-American architect and author of pattern-books, Gervase Wheeler.
Sargent was a founder of the “communalistic“ community of Bond Hill, north of downtown Cincinnati,” according to Aharon Varady’s study of that utopian suburb.
Schatz, George Frederick
(Cincinnati, born in 1906)
Educated at M.I.T.; received a Fontainebleau (Beaux-Arts) Scholarship. Worked for Tietig & Lee 1924-1927; Garber & Woodward 1928-1931; Jacques Carter, Boston, Mass., 1931-1932; William P. Upham, Norwood, Mass., 1932-1933; and Royal Barry Wills, Boston 1933-1934 (one of America's most popular "Traditional" residential architects in the World War II era, Wills has recently been reappraised in Post-Modernist terms by David Gebhardt).
An instructor in Advanced Design, Boston Architectural Club, 1933-1935; Schatz was back in Cincinnati with Carl J. Kiefer Associates, 1945-1946. CAIA (1952).
Schlochtemeyer, Edward [Sr.]
Listed 1893-1952; S. & Ihorst, 1910. Only known work St. Agnes Roman Catholic Church, Bond Hill (1893). His son, Edward H. Schlochtemeyer Jr. (1901-1970), was (according to his obituary), a “practicing architect in the Price Hill area;” later draftsman for the D.H. Baldwin [Piano] Co.
Obituary, Cincinnati Enquirer, 12/30/1970,27, col.2.
Schmidt, Elmer Henry
(Cincinnati, born in 1899)
Educated at St. George High School; O.M.I., 1919; UC. Practiced on own 1921-1923; thereafter apparently with E.J. Schulte (Crowe & Schulte), supervising construction for the firm, and with some commissions on his own.
(Cincinnati, born in 1906)
Educated at UC, B.S. Architecture, 1931; won Doric Order Prize, 1927, and second place in the Harry Hake Design Competition, 1931; draftsman for Garriott & Becker, 1931-1934; draftsman and designer for Edward J., Schulte, 1934-1938; also with Ibold & Son; listed on own 1938-1983, with short breaks. In 1942, served with the U.S. Navy Seabees on Guadalcanal. He studied art at the Cincinnati Art Academy, and after retirement from architectural practice concentrated on watercolors and drawings, with several one-man shows and prizes.
Schmuelling's works, both on his own and for other firms in the 1930s, were largely residential, with institutional and commercial commissions interspersed. His earlier works were usually of Traditional character, with emphasis on high-quality period design and detailing.
Schofield, George W.
Covington, Ky. architect; with William A. Rabe 1901-1904; with Lyman Walker, 1906-1907; perhaps with Roberts, 1910; practiced on own, 1907-1915. With Rabe, designed the superb late Richardsonian Fifth District School (1901); with Walker, a well-trained Beaux-Arts-style architect, and Cincinnati architect Harry Hake, designed (or laid claim to) the fine Farmers & Traders National Bank (now Kentucky National Bank), NWC Madison and Sixth streets, Covington; they also submitted to the St. Benedict Roman Catholic Church competition (1907), and perhaps designed the Spanish Colonial Railroad Y.M.C.A. Hotel on Madison Avenue (1910).
Schofield himself designed many fairly modest churches, houses, and flat buildings in N. Ky., as well as a theater in Mt. Sterling, Ky., for 450 seats (1909). Also designed the unique Temple Israel, E. Seventh St., Covington (1914-1915).
The City of Cincinnati and Its Resources (1891), 142.
Schulte, Edward J.
Leading Cincinnati and vicinity architect for the Roman Catholic Church during the second quarter of the 20th century. Schulte served as a draftsman with Werner & Adkins (whom he condemns in his autobiography, The Lord Was My Client); according to the CAIA records, also with H.E. Hannaford and Charles F. Cellarius, and Hubert Garriott (later of Garriott and Becker); on his own after 1912; with Robert E. Crowe, 1921-1933; then again on own, to 1967.
A prolific and skilled (if possibly arrogant) architect, he worked primarily for the Roman Catholic Church in the Cincinnati area, although, perhaps surprisingly, he listed the Liberty Theater in Pittsburgh first among his principal works in the 1936 Kentucky Who's Who. Attempting to avoid the usual Protestant Gothic or Colonial Revival modes, he devised a streamlined version of a variety of earlier medieval and even slightly exotic styles and models, often simultaneously suggesting an Art Deco or Moderne flavor. When Schulte worked in Pittsburgh in the late 1910s, up to 1921, he might have come into contact with Plympton, then working for John T. Comes and delineating for Edward J. Weber.
This process of modification of historic styles is true even of Schulte's early St. Monica Church (which served an interim Cathedral 1938-1957), W. McMillan St. and Fairview Ave, Clifton Heights, a splendid, totally-designed early medieval conception; of course, the priest in charge often had a good deal of influence on the choice of model, here said to be Sant' Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna, although the overall effect is more Romanesque than Early Christian; in any case, the siting, with an asymmetrical campanile offsetting the slope, and the craftsmanship—stone-carving, including sculpture by Clement J. Barnhorn, metalwork, and woodwork—are superb. Later the Archdiocese of Cincinnati is said to have set up a workshop of ecclesiastical craftsmen and artists utilized by Schulte and others. Schulte himself met Charles Connick, the famous Boston stained-glass designer and promoter of the return to Romanesque inspiration (analogous to Cram’s influence), while working on the design for the small chapel addition to St. Ann Convent in Melbourne, Ky., which had been designed by Crowe prior to their partnership. (Schulte, p. 19).
Schulte was also responsible for enlarging and remodeling, in a slick but impressive Decoized Greek Revival Revival [sic], St. Peter-in-Chains, prior to its once again becoming a cathedral, ca. 1956. He and his partner [separate pre- and post-Crowe] designed numerous other ecclesiastical works throughout the Cincinnati area; also, The Loretto, Dayton, Oh., and St. Peter, Lexington, Ky. The role of Crowe in the firm's accomplishments has not yet been ascertained, but many of the best works attributed to Schulte were designed under their joint aegis. See also Cram and Charles Connick.
Schulte (ca. 1970);
CAIA-R34 (ca. 1928);
Painter, Sullebarger, AIC (2006), 44, 45, 185, 187, 323.
Crowe & Schulte
Paramount Theater Building, 1931
900 East McMillan Street, Peebles Corner, Walnut Hills
Movie theaters were often designed in modernistic styles that uplifted people dispirited by the Great Depression.
Schureman, D.S. (David S.)
(Wilkesbarre. Pa., ca. 1856-after 1891)
After training as a journeyman-carpenter with his father, education at night school and the Iron City College in Wilkesbarre, began practice in Cincinnati 1871; listed on own as a "Practical Architect & Superintendent" until associated with Michael Rumbaugh 1885-after 1891; but also listed with S. & (H.E.) Kennedy, 1887. These seem to have been ambitious but provincial firms, as evidenced by the proposed "City Buildings for Cincinnati" illustrated with an 1891 Rumbaugh & Schureman blurb, but probably the same submitted as by Schureman & Kennedy to the Cincinnati City Hall competition in 1887, when they also competed for the 1st regiment Armory (both actually designed by the Hannafords).
Schureman, whose other advertisements show extremely retardataire examples of his work, apparently did design the awkward but relatively severe Lincoln's Inn Court Building, also known as the Dickson Building, in which, surprisingly, a number of sophisticated Cincinnati architects had their offices in the late 19th century. Charles T. Dickson's own home in E. Walnut Hills was a Second Empire-Queen Anne confection designed to impress.
Schureman designed several Cincinnati public schools in the early 1870s, in a rather stiff late Italianate or Victorian Gothic style, probably developed from the Canadian architect William Stewart's First District School below Prospect Hill (1866-1868) (some of the Schureman schools are attributed to S. Hannaford; or perhaps Hannaford was responsible for later additions). Schureman's schools include the 22nd District (formerly Cummins) School, now adapted as offices, NWC Taft Rd. and Melrose Ave., Walnut Hills (1872); and the original Corryville (23rd District) School (1878-1885).
Probably the greatest of American turn-of-the-century architectural critics and historians, Schuyler published "The Building of Cincinnati" in the Architectural Record, the leading literate architectural periodical since 1892. Schuyler had particular praise for several Gothic Revival works of James K. Wilson, whom he associated with similar avant-garde rationalist works by Leopold Eidlitz. He also emphasized recent work by Elzner & Anderson, whom he may have known through Elzner's slightly earlier articles and coverage of the Ingalls Building in the Architectural Record. Although Schuyler's article perpetuated some probable inaccuracies, such as the attribution of the Baum House/Taft Museum to B.H. Latrobe, it was the last and still probably most insightful attempt to summarize Cincinnati's architectural achievements.
From internal evidence, it appears that Schuyler had also visited Cincinnati about the early 1870s.
Painter, AIC (2006), 160;
Langsam (1997), 1, 32, 92, 110;
Schuyler, "The Building of Cincinnati," Architectural Record, XXIII, 5 (5/1908), 337-66.
Scowden, T.R. (Theodore R.)
(Pittsburgh, Pa., born in 1815)
Engineer and inventor of, among other ingenious devices and applications, "the first revolving, breech-loading, fire-arm that was ever invented," a "self-firing cannon" perfected when he was 23 years old. In 1845 he was appointed engineer of the Cincinnati Water Works, replacing the original log pipes with 40-50 miles of iron pipes, and building a new reservoir and engine-house on the exact site of the old water works (Reading Road below Mt. Auburn see 1869 map); "the first low-pressure engine ever successfully used in the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys was designed by Mr. Scowden and introduced into these works," by means of "vulcanized india-rubber valves seated on a grating." In 1851 the City of Cincinnati commissioned Scowden "to make the tour of England and France for the purpose of examining the principles and workings of public docks, sewerage, paving and water-works." He returned, made his report, and promptly resigned, moving to Cleveland, Cincinnati's rival, where he constructed their waterworks.
In 1857 Scowden began the design and construction of the magnificent, surviving Louisville, Ky., Waterworks [a National Historic Landmark], at River Rd and Zion Ave (1857-1861), with its columnar water tower and multi-pavilioned pumping station, all vividly described in Joblin. A number of leading Cincinnatians participated in a convention held at Louisville in 1859 to consider and approve proposed improvements at the Falls of the Ohio by Scowden, consisting of an enlargement and extension of the old Louisville and Portland Canal, including "the largest locks in the world” at that time (built 1860-1865, but not completed until 1872). While in Louisville, Scowden with other prominent investors established a bank and "bought up the water power and celebrated cement lands and mills on the Kentucky side of the falls, forming one of the largest manufacturing concerns in America."
He returned to Cleveland, however, (where he had a magnificent house and grounds on Euclid Avenue) became also involved in industry, steel manufacturing, and patents, with a branch in Louisville and projected in Cincinnati (1872). He was appointed engineer of the Newport (Ky.) Waterworks and "was employed by the Cincinnati Council and Water-works Trustees to survey the river shore above the city on the Ohio side, for the purpose of locating new water-works for the city."
Joblin (1872), 373-77;
Langsam, Preservation, (1973);
Painter, AIC (2006), 29, 30.
Sears, Roebuck & Co.
Many Sears' prefabricated "kit" houses, distributed during much of the first half of this century, were at least partially constructed/assembled in the the Norwood (Oh.) Sash & Door Co. plant. Several hundred "Sears" houses in the Cincinnati area have been identified and classified in a fascinating University of Cincinnati Master's Thesis by Bea Lask. See also Joseph Earl Stith.
Lask, UC M.A.
Sheblessy, John F. (Francis)
Educated at the Chicago Art Institute and the Armour Institute of Technology; entered the office of William LeBaron Jenney 1895; was later employed by the important Chicago firms of Holabird & Roche and Henry Ives Cobb; moved to Louisville, Ky., in 1900, working for the McDonald Bros., a major firm throughout the Southeast; moved to Cincinnati in 1907, working with S.E. Desjardins until 1909, when he began practice on his own (listed as S. & Stegner in 1912).
He was a prolific and refined designer of Roman Catholic churches and other institutions in Cincinnati and vicinity.
Withey (1956, 1970), 549;
Kervick (1962), 120.
(New York City, 1867-1934)
Influential gardening tastemaker during the first half of the 20th-century. The selection and presentation of (private residential) gardens in her book, Beautiful Gardens in America (N.Y: 1915 and 1924), formed a virtual canon for the period. The color frontispiece [of both editions] was a view at “Mariemont,” Mrs. Thomas J. Emery’s summer estate in [or near] Newport, R.I., and other views were illustrated in black-and-white; it was probably this estate that gave its name to the admirable planned community of Mariemont (pronounced “Marymont”) near Cincinnati in the early 1920s.
Birnbaum and Karson (2000), 107-108 (by Virginia Lopez Begg);
Shepley, Henry R.
(ca. 1890-after 1944)
Eldest son of George Foster Shepley (1869-1903), senior partner in Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, the successor firm to H.H. Richardson whose daughter Julia married C.F. Shepley in 1886. Henry R. Shepley became senior partner in the firm reorganized as Coolidge, Shepley, Bullfinch & Abbott during the 1930s.
He served on the jury for the 1938 competition for the Covington, Ky., Post Office and Courthouse. He was also on the Supervising Architect’s Advisory Committee on Architectural Design. A successor firm designed the ca. 2000 north addition wing to the Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County.
Withey (1956, 1970), 550-51;
Lee (2000), 256, 271.
With (E.H.) Dornette & S., 1899-1902; on own 1903-1910. Seems to have worked extensively in N. Ky., particularly Ft. Thomas, the "Kentucky Highlands," including remodeling the famed Altamont Hotel (1906); a "California bungalow" for Ralph McCracken (1907) is also specifically mentioned. He also worked for the Crown Brewery on E. McMicken, Over-the-Rhine, and designed a four-flat building for working men for William Lodge, the president of the Industrial Bureau (1908).
Short, Charles W. (Wilkins), Jr.
Short was a great-great-grandson of John Cleves Symmes, one of the pioneers of the Cincinnati area, who established North Bend in 1789. Anna, the younger daughter of Symmes, who married William Henry Harrison, the short-lived ninth president of the U.S., was introduced to Harrison in the Lexington estate of her sister and brother-in-law, Maria and Major Peyton Short. After Maria’s early death, her children were sent to Symmes in Cincinnati. One of Symmes' great-grandsons was Charles W. Short (d. 1926), who founded in 1882 Fernbank, a middle-class commuters' community along the Ohio River west of downtown Cincinnati, near North Bend; a number of drawings for the earliest suburban residences and a handsome Gothic Revival Episcopal church in Fernbank were designed by Samuel Hannaford. [Charles W. Short, [Sr.,] was listed in the 1901 Cincinnati Society Address Book as a lumber merchant living in Lexington, Ky.; his wife’s maiden name was Dudley.] The architect Short married the Austrian Countess Camilla Hoyos, with whom he lived in Cincinnati or New York. These cosmopolitan and "old Cincinnati" connections no doubt provided Short and his partner Stanley Matthews with many of their elite clientele.
C.W. Short, Jr., studied architecture in England, and then worked for the outstanding ecclesiastical architect Ralph Adams Cram in Boston (Cram's only known work in the Cincinnati area is a chapel in Glendale for the Convent of the Transfiguration, founded by a member of the Procter family of P&G, into which the father of Short's partner Stanley Matthews had married). Langsam has pages of a Short travel sketch-book, with particular emphasis on working-class housing in Britain, such as Port Sunlight and Golders Green, indicating an early interest in the type of planned community represented in Cincinnati by Mariemont.
During World War I Short worked in the Department of Labor's U.S. Housing Department; in practice on own in Cincinnati 1926; with Stanley Matthews, A.C. Denison & A.W. Jenkins, 1927-1929; became an architectural advisor to the Public Works Administration in Washington during the Depression. He was listed in New York 1916-1936, with Matthews 1928-1930 (Matthews was on his own there 1931-1934). With Rudolph Stanley-Brown (1889-1944; originally from Cleveland), Short prepared the important Public Buildings: Architecture under the PWA, 1933-1939.
In the mid-1920s, Short designed the "Short Group," Oak St., Mariemont, as well as the estates of Albert H. Chatfield, Jr. (“Red Bird Lodge,” 1927), and Ethan B. Stanley (“Beresford Dale,” 1925) in Indian Hill, and worked on the magnificent Julius Fleischmann estate in Indian Hill, "Winding Creek Farm" (ca. 1924-1926 ; the Fleischmann family yeast factory was established in Riverside, near the Shorts' Fernbank, about 1870), with Stanley Matthews and Denison as associate. All these splendid establishments were designed all in period styles, although Short & Stanley-Brown attempted to promote more modern styling in the PWA, and there is a restrained and "stripped," almost abstract quality to their work that belongs to their own period (recalling, for instance, the contemporary residence in Pittsburgh that Benno Janssen designed for Edgar Kaufmann, Sr.—the client for Wright's "Fallingwater" in the mid-1930s).
Drawings owned by Walter E. Langsam [some of which was donated to the Cincinnati Historical Society Library in 2005] indicate that Short also designed at least one residence (dated 1925) in Hot Springs, Va., for J. Fay Ingalls, a son of railroad entrepreneur Melville E. Ingalls of Cincinnati who bought and developed the entire valley and revived the famous Homestead resort. On one of these drawings his firm is listed as having offices in London, as well as New York and Cincinnati. Langsam also has Short office photos (one of a model) of residences on Garden Place and elsewhere, including a pre-"Peterloon" residence for John J. Emery.
See the Introduction by Richard Guy Wilson to the 1985 Da Capo reprint of the PWA publication;
Painter, William Henry Harrison: Father of the West, Enslow Publishers, 2004;
Ward (1989), 51, 71;
Painter, AIC (2006), 99.
Simon, Louis A.
(Baltimore, Md., 1867-1958)
Supervising Architect of the Treasury 1934-1940 (when the office was taken over by the PWA/WPA). Had originally been brought to the Office in 1896 by Edward A. Crane (whose later firm, Rankin, Kellogg & Crane of Philadelphia, designed the present Hamilton County Court House).
Simon was educated at M.I.T.; then toured Europe; opened architectural office in Baltimore 1894. Within the Supervising Architect’s office, rapidly rose through the ranks, to chief of the Engineering and Drafting Division in 1915. According to Lee, “Between 1915 and 1934, with [Warren A.] Wetmore at the administrative reins, Simon was responsible for ‘all phases of architectural work’ in the office.” Under his Depression-era aegis, the Supervising Architect’s office mainly designed small Colonial Revival buildings, with occasional forays into a Stripped Classical Modernism. Among the latter are the 1939 U.S. Post Office and Court House on the north side of E. Fifth St. between Main and Walnut streets, which was, like its predecessor, A.B. Mullett’s Second Empire structure on the same site, among the Supervising Architect’s last works in office (and also the superintendent of construction for both, with apparently some design credit, was S. Hannaford & Sons); and the Covington Post Office, one of the few Federal buildings whose architect was chosen by competition.
Lee (2000), esp. Chap. VIII, 258-75;
Sullebarger, AIC (2006), 199, 201, 202, 203.
Louis A. Simon, Supervising Architect
Thomas Harlan Ellett, Consulting Architect
U.S. Post Office and Courthouse, 1939-1940
Scott Boulevard at Seventh Street, Covington, Kentucky
This handsome building by New York architect Thomas Harlan Ellett reflects the preferred treatment for government buildings of the New Deal era, with its flat roof and smooth limestone walls, embellished with bas-reliefs.
Siter, H. (Henry) E.
One of the most interesting of late-19th-century architects who practiced in Cincinnati, H.E. Siter was responsible for several of the great Richardsonian Romanesque Revival public-school buildings built in the older suburbs of the city in the 1880s and 1890s, when Siter was at least the unofficial architect for the Board of Education. Their giant pyramidal roofs, spectacular chimneys, and rich detail make them landmarks in their neighborhoods, such as the former Columbian School in Avondale [demolished 1993], and one on Mt. Adams, which served as an annex by the Art Academy of Cincinnati and in 2007 was converted to residential condominiums. He designed some of the most poetically textured and detailed local variants of the Richardsonian Romanesque, such as the Mt. Auburn Presbyterian Church on Taft Road near Auburn Avenue, a virtually intact (both outside and inside) Richardsonian design with a Gothic flavor.
Surprisingly in the context of this Richardsonian work, but not in terms of his New England background, Siter also designed one of the earliest and finest American Colonial Revival buildings in the area, the jeweler Charles H. Duhme's buff brick house (1892) on Clifton Avenue at Lafayette Circle, with its spidery tracery of Adamesque detail on a basically cubic block.
Although born in Philadelphia, Siter was educated in Newport, R.I., among many sterling examples of 17th- and 18th-century, vernacular and high-style Colonial architecture. He spent a year in the Boston office of Clarence S. Luce; two years with Gridley J.F. Bryant, a prominent Boston architect; and seven with Samuel J.F. Thayer, architect of the Second Empire Providence, R.I., City Hall, for whom Siter was head draughtsman for the last five years (ca. 1879-1884); all were prominent architects of their period and place, although not the most forward-looking, perhaps. Luce was, however, an early exponent of the Shingle Style, according to Scully. Siter was therefore exposed, not only to the actual New England Colonial (and Federal) architecture that was beginning to be recognized during his years with Thayer after the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition of 1876, but also to the development of H.H. Richardson's personal version of the Romanesque (combined with Byzantine and even Syrian Early Christian elements) but based on the Beaux-Arts planning and conceptualizing that Richardson had gained in Paris during the Civil War years.
Siter came to Cincinnati in September 1884, and opened his own office in the Lincoln's Inn Court Building in November 1885, after a year in the office of Edwin Anderson (the former partner of Samuel Hannaford). He is listed as practicing here 1885-1912 (although apparently in Boston, 1899), was a regular member of the Cincinnati Chapter of the AIA (American Institute of Architects), and attempted to open an office in Lexington, Ky., with the English-born and trained Cincinnati architect W.W. Franklin in 1886. He was listed as a partner of Lucien F. Plympton in 1897.
Siter's earliest Cincinnati work is said to have been the United States [Bank] Building (completed May 1886), at Third and Walnut streets, where he had his office during the 1890s. From the beginning he seems to have had distinguished clients, especially for residences, such as Eugene Zimmerman (whose daughter Helena married the Duke of Manchester), Charles Fleischmann, General Michael Ryan, and members of the Groesbeck, Heekin, Hanna, Longworth, and possibly Seasongood families (or their estates), as well as the Shinkle family in Covington.
Siter & [Edwin] Anderson competed in the nationally important competition for the design of the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce Building at Fourth and Vine streets (1885; won by H.H. Richardson’s own firm, with entries from Bruce Price of New York, Burnham & Root of Chicago, and Wheelwright & Everett of Boston); it is possible that Siter was brought to Cincinnati from Boston by Anderson with the imminent Chamber competition. In 1887, Siter won an informal competition to design the Pike Street townhouse of architecture patron A. Howard Hinkle (who endowed a scholarship for the AIA), against New York architect Bruce Price, W.M. Aiken, and A.O. Elzner, but contributed unsuccessfully to an 1890s competition for the First (Linton) Unitarian Universalist Church on Reading Road in Avondale won by James W. McLaughlin, and the 1895 University of Cincinnati Competition (won, as so many Cincinnati competitions were at the turn of the last century, by S. Hannaford & Sons).
Siter designed the cruciform main building (Horticultural Hall, also used as the Art Gallery) of the Cincinnati Centennial Exposition of 1888 in Washington Park, linked to Music Hall by a "Bridge of Sighs," as well as a "Log Cabin" for the Exposition. The diminutive Winton Place St. Stephen Episcopal Chapel (1886), Mt. Auburn Presbyterian Church (1880s) and related Clifford Memorial Chapel (demolished by the University of Cincinnati in 2004), and the Church of the Nativity, Price Hill, demonstrate further his interest in picturesque massing.
The Third National Bank Building of Cincinnati, with its high gable, was a superb adaptation of Richardsonian conceptions to a narrow urban site (like the Hinkle house; and perhaps "everyone's favorite townhouse," an imaginative Richardsonian facade on Ninth St. opposite the Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, torn down in the 1980s for parking, which in turn made way for the library‘s extension in the late 1990s). Siter also designed a pre-1891 Second National Bank Building and the Commercial Bank Building; the Farmers' National Bank in Mansfield, Oh.; the former Citizens' National Bank in Sidney, Oh.; and the German National Bank on Madison Avenue at Pike St., Covington, Ky., mentioned earlier. He designed a Richardsonian addition to the St. Nicholas Hotel, formerly at the southeast corner of Fourth and Race Sts.
For the City of Cincinnati, Siter had designed by 1894 "two [police] patrols, one [fire] engine [house], and five school houses." The last included the Columbian School in Avondale, built in several stages, and demolished in 1993 after numerous attempts to save it. Other Siter schools are (in 2008) the Walnut Hills High School, (converted to residential) Ashland and Burdett avenues, near Victory Parkway; Fairview Heights (30th District) School, (vacant) Warner St. at Stratford; and the 8th (Sherman, in the West End), 12th, 16th (Taft, Mt. Auburn), 19th (Hoffman, East Walnut Hills; perhaps an addition, all replaced by the present Hannaford & Sons Tudor Revival structure in the early 1900s), and 29th District schools; some of these have been replaced.
Siter also designed many large-scale commercial and industrial structures, such as the former Sachs Shoe Manufacturing Co., 800 Sycamore St. (ca. 1890); other shoe factories on the SE and NE corners of Ninth and Sycamore; and the Enterprise Carriage Co. plant in Miamisburg, Oh.
In 1899 Siter "relocated in Boston, where he built up a large clientele; he is listed with William F. Goodwin as Goodwin & Siter in Boston 1900-1904; several of the Cincinnati area's other most creative architects, such as James W. McLaughlin and Lucian F. Plympton, also moved East after the turn of the last century. Siter returned to Cincinnati shortly before his death.
The City of Cincinnati and Its Resources (1891), 141;
Leading Manufacturers, XXV, 43 (6/16/1894), 24;
Obituary, Cincinnati Times-Star (1/4/1913);
Directory of Boston Architects, 1846-1970 (1985), 29, 60;
Langsam (1997), 61, 90, 100, 103;
Painter, AIC (2006), 100, 101;
Langsam (1997), on “Brightside.”
Mt. Auburn Presbyterian Church, 1889-1890
103 W.H. Taft Road, Mt. Auburn
This solid “masculine” structure has interesting variations in form and complex massing. The mysterious depths of the wood-paneled interior are illuminated by the large stained-glass windows.
(Lawrenceburg, Ind., 1897-1962)
The principal of the world-class post-World War II architectural and development firm, Skidmore, (Nathaniel A.) Owings & (John O.) Merrill.
Supposedly Skidmore was persuaded while at the Ohio Mechanics’ Institute (now UC’s OCAS) in Cincinnati to take up architecture rather than merely drafting by a teacher, the architect Charles R. Strong of Cincinnati.
According to Mock (information presumably supplied by the architect himself), Skidmore was in the Cincinnati office of Kruckemeyer & Strong in 1920, spending 1921-1924 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. According to Wilson, however, Skidmore “was educated at Bradley University, Peoria, Pa.”
He served with the U.S. Air Corps in Britain during World War I. He returned to attend the M.I.T. School of Architecture and then worked for two years with Charles D. McGinnis in Boston before winning the Rotch Traveling Scholarship in 1926. He spent three years in Europe, including a year at the American Academy in Rome. Known for his sketching talents, he provided measured drawings for Samuel Chamberlain’s Tudor Homes of England with Some Examples from Later Periods (N.Y.: Architectural Book Co., 1929). He returned from Europe in 1929 to marry Eloise Owings, the sister of his future partner, Nathaniel Owings.
Also in 1929, Skidmore became the chief of design (or Assistant General Manager in Charge of Design, 1930-1935, according to Mock) for the Century of Progress Exposition to be held in Chicago in 1933. Owings was his assistant. Philadelphian Paul Cret was also on the architectural team, perhaps with a role like Burnham’s in Chicago 1893. S&O was founded in 1936 in Chicago; SOM in 1939 (John Merrill engineer); N.Y. office 1937. During World War II government contracts, esp. Oak Ridge, Tenn., atom-bomb plant.
Richard Guy Wilson in his short biography of Skidmore in The AIA Gold Medal (1984) summarizes the architect’s significance from the perspective of that date: “Louis Skidmore co-founded one of the most successful and highly regarded architectural practices of the mid- and late twentieth century, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. It is fair to say that this firm has dominated the large-scale corporate practice of architecture since 1950. Through their designs, which have been erected in nearly every corner of the globe, the radical European modern style of the early twentieth century was transformed into the image of capitalism and government. Louis Skidmore’s contribution to this transformation was fundamental, and while he was never known as an outstanding designer, his salesmanship and organizational methods were fundamental; from his office issued some of the most electrifying [architectural] images of the 1950s.”
SOM designed (at approximately the same time as their most influential early work, the Lever House office building on 5th Avenue in N.Y.C.) the Terrace Plaza/Netherland Hilton Hotel, SWC Sixth and Vine streets (1949-1950), for John J. Emery; this was one of the firm's early successful projects and one of the first major hotels/mixed-use buildings built after the war; the Central Trust Building, Main east side between Fourth and Fifth streets; and the Atrium One and Two Buildings, Fourth St. between Sycamore and Main streets. Walter Netsch, the head of the Chicago office, and one of the most thoughtful designers of the firm, designed the Miami University Art Museum for his alma mater, in Oxford, Oh. (1978).
Mock (1944), 122:
Macmillan Encyclopedia, IV (1982), 77-80 (on SOM, by Susan Strauss);
R.G. Wilson (1984), 186-87;
Ward (1989), 71;
Langsam (1997), 4, 95, 118;
Van Vynckt, ed. (1993), I, 830-33 (on SOM, by John Winter);
Sullebarger, AIC (2006), 233.
Smith, F. Patterson
A graduate and later Dean of the Harvard University School of Design. He probably began practice with H. Langford Warren in Troy, N.Y., about 1885, under the firm name of Warren, Smith & Briscoe and later, until the 1920s (apparently even after Warren’s death in 1917), as Warren & Smith; the latter firm moved to Boston about 1893 (when Warren also began teaching at Harvard). See Withey biography of Warren for reference to their sole known Cincinnati commission, the ca. 1911 Collegiate Gothic Chancel added to the (Episcopal) Church of the Advent in Walnut Hills, for which a drawing also survives at the Cincinnati Historical Society Library.
Withey (1956, 1970), 559.
Smith, Oliver C.
(Cincinnati, born in 1861)
Listed as from Pittsburgh in 1882; practiced in Cincinnati with Lonsdale Green 1885-1888, when office manager Thornton Fitzhugh succeeded to the firm. An 1882 rendering, one of several featuring rather arty but well-done Shingle Style buildings in the early 1880s, lists Smith as from Pittsburgh, Pa.
(Cincinnati, 1872-after 1931)
After architectural education joined S. Hannaford & Sons ca. 1901; remained until he set up practice on his own 1919; listed 1921-1931. For Hannaford, assisted in the design of the much-admired Cincinnati General Hospital, Avondale; the new Ohio Mechanics' Institute (including Emery Auditorium), NEC Walnut St. and Central Parkway, Over-The-Rhine (an original Beaux-Arts Classical design proposal, was replaced by the present Collegiate Tudor, perhaps in response to Mrs. Mary Emery's involvement); the Ohio-Miami Medical College; Hamilton Co. Soldiers' & Sailors' Memorial Hall, Elm St., Over-The-Rhine; Memorial Hospital, Nashville, Tenn.; Methodist Hospital, Memphis, Tenn., Vanderbilt University Hospital, Nashville, Tenn. From this list, it appears that Spielman may have been the major early 20th-century designer for the firm, especially of large public and institutional buildings.
On his own, he designed "all the Moore oil stations in Cincinnati, all the new buildings for the Cincinnati Zoological Gardens and many fine residences," as well as industrial, theater, club buildings, “and high-class residence work.” Unfortunately, few or none of these independent works have yet been identified.
Spielman was evidently a brilliant delineator: early in his career his signed a number of drawings for the prominent Columbus, Oh., firm of (Joseph) Yost & (Frank) Packard, reproduced in their elaborate monograph, A Portfolio of Architectural Realities Covering a Wide Range of Designs in Both Public and Private Structures . . . by Yost and Packard, Architects, Columbus, Ohio; and a well-known presentation perspective rendering of Memorial Hall (reprinted as a poster) is signed by Spielman.
In addition, he was “a popular and valued member of the National and local chapter of the American Institute of Architects.” A staunch Republican, he was a member of the First English Lutheran Church on Washington Park, Over-The-Rhine (opposite Memorial Hall).
Memoirs of the Miami Valley, III (1920), 398-99.
Several histories of Cincinnati mention Stagge as providing plans for the ambitious 1814-1815 Cincinnati Lancastrian Seminary Building on Fourth St. Margaret Hartman has suggested that its basic format, with a recessed two-story gallery under a central pediment, and its general proportions, may have inspired, or been designed by the same person as the so-called "Carneal" (actually Gano-Southgate) House, 405 E. Second St., Covington, Ky., from approximately the same period, although Thomas D. Carneal is likely to have built the house for his co-developer of Covington, one of the Gano brothers.
Ford (1881), entry by Ratterman;
1996 article on the Lancastrian movement, JSAH;
Painter, AIC (2006), 14;
Langsam (1997), 20.
Stanley, H.J. (Horace Johnson)
(Mayfield, Fulton Co., N.Y., born in 1846)
Civil engineer; to Cincinnati ca. 1869; specialized in sewer treatment, streets, topographical and sub-division surveys, and construction estimates.
The City of Cincinnati and Its Resources (1891), 141.
(Mentor, Oh., 1889 or 1890-1944)
A grandson of President James A. Garfield, educated in Cleveland, Oh., at Yale University, Columbia University School of Architecture, and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris (1912-1913); practiced with his uncle Abram Garfield in Cleveland (ca. 1920-1936); then in Washington, D.C. Co-author with Cincinnatian Charles W. Short of Public Buildings: Architecture under the PWA, 1933-1939.
Withey (1956, 1970), 566-67.
Starbuck, Edwin Paul
(Cincinnati, born in 1907)
Educated at Norwood High School; O.M.I., 1928; US, 1938. With Wilbur Firth, 1924-1930; structural engineer for Schreiber Iron Works, Norwood, 1942, and on own in the evenings; with Harry Hake after 1945.
Stegner, Clifford M.
(Cincinnati, born in 1877)
Educated at UC, B.S., 1899; Cornell University, in Civil Engineering, 1900. Probably worked with G.W. Drach in first decade of 20th century. Listed with B.S. Hughes and Bernard S. Alves, 1913-1914; with Hughes alone 1915-1919; on own ca. 1920-1926. Stegner & Hughes designed the E. Clifton School in Newport, Ky., in 1915.
Steinkamp, John B. (Johann Bernhard)
Brought to Cincinnati from Hanover, Germany, by his parents ca. 1835/1836; trained as carpenter, then served as superintendent of construction, for the Emery family, among others; practiced as architect ca. 1880-1890, officially opening his own family firm in 1885.
Steinkamp supervised the construction of the Grand Hotel; the old Queen City Club (by S. Hannaford, SWC Elm and Seventh streets); and for the Emerys the old Emery Arcade (and Hotel, by Henry Bevis, Vine St., east side, south of Fifth St.; on or close to the site of the present Netherland Arcade).
For the Emery family the Steinkamps, including 25 years under John Bernard Steinkamp, designed and constructed numerous apartment buildings, rowhouses, and other residential properties (see J.G. Steinkamp, below, for a partial list).
Dierecke (1901), 154;
Painter, AIC (2006), 92, 148, 149.
Joseph G. Steinkamp & Brother
Xavier University Campus, from 1915
3800 Victory Parkway, Evanston
Xavier University’s first administration building was named Hinkle Hall for Mrs. Frederick W. Hinkle, a major donor. Her portrait hangs in the entry foyer. The campus was reconfigured in the 1990s.
Steinkamp, Joseph G.
(Cincinnati, born in 1868)
Educated in Cincinnati, at St. Xavier College (now Xavier University) and the Ohio Mechanics' Institute; worked in the office of his father, John B. Steinkamp; on his own until he was joined by his younger brother, Bernard F. Steinkamp, as Joseph G. Steinkamp & Brother, ca. 1900; listed together and on own until ca. 1948.
The brothers' early 20th-century works include the Young Men's Mercantile Library Building (built 1902-1903 for the Emery Estate; then became property of the Fleischmann Estate; the Steinkamp Bros. Offices were in the YMML Bldg in 1927 [Leonard] and several architectural books from Steinkamp’s collection are still on library reading room shelves [Painter]; YMML located between two contemporary Burnham buildings, on the east side of Walnut St. between Fourth and Fifth streets; a rendering was delineated by John Scudder Adkins, a fine Beaux-Arts architect who may actually have been responsible for the design), with a notable use of restrained Sullivanian tile ornament at street-level; the Robertson Building at NWC Seventh and Race streets, a handsome reinforced concrete office building with a large proportion (80%) of window space and unusual Celtic interlace cladding of "Lawson's Composite Cut Stone"; the Hotel Metropole (Garfield Place; demolished in 1990); the Tudor Revival buildings for Xavier University in Avondale/Evanston; and the superb Art Deco American Building on the NWC of Central Parkway and Walnut St.
For probably 50 years the Steinkamp firm designed and constructed innumerable apartment buildings for the Emery family downtown and in the inner suburbs, usually located on streetcar lines. Among these were the San Rafael (Fourth St.), Norfolk/Talbot/Waldo (NWC Elm and Eighth streets), Somerset, Cumberland, North and South Warwick, Roanoke (Ludlow Ave., Clifton), Park Side (Jefferson Ave., Clifton), Haddon Hall (Reading Rd., Avondale), Eden, Melbourne, Nelson, Seamington, Waldemar, Abbotford, and Sandheger Flats. Although some of these are handsome structures, the firm was best known for its efficiency and practicality; it also specialized in large garages and services after World War I.
The earliest apartment buildings in the city—such as the Lombardy on W. Fourth St., ca. 1880)—are believed to have been designed for the Emerys by Samuel Hannaford's firm (although there is evidence that James W. McLaughlin actually designed the first such "modern" apartment building, the Sinton, on W. Fourth St., 1876), as were other important Emery commissions in the late 1870s and early '80s (although Henry Bevis is believed to have designed the Emery Arcade between Vine and Race streets S of Fifth, ca. 1880). Mrs. Mary J. Emery seems to have remained loyal to the Hannafords for the design of her own residence, "Edgecliff" in (East) Walnut Hills, and perhaps even for later additions. With the collapse of one wall of the Palace (now Cincinnatian) Hotel during construction, however, the Emerys are said to have abandoned the Hannafords and adopted the Steinkamps as architects as well as builders.
Dierecke (1901), 154;
Fetter (1903), 159;
Goss, III (1912), 512-13;
Memoirs of the Miami Valley, III (1920), 394-95;
Menefee (1926), 45, 142;
Leonard, IV (1927), 594-96;
Painter, AIC (2006), 92, 148, 149
Samuel Hannaford and Joseph Steinkamp & Brother
Palace Hotel, 1882
Sixth and Vine streets
Luxurious “palace” hotels were a new type modeled after the town houses of European royalty and America’s new class of multimillionaires. They allowed middle-class people to experience briefly the lifestyle of the rich. Dining, visiting, and even residing at palace hotels became a popular recreational activity in the so-called great cities. The Palace’s best rooms were priced at $2.50 per day. The building exterior is distinguished by a steep slate mansard roof, which is pierced by two floors of dormers and the lightly incised limestone walls. Samuel Hannaford was the preferred architect for the Emerys until a construction problem on this job led them to change architects. The exterior base of the Palace and the interiors were dramatically altered in a Postmodernist fashion during a 1987 renovation by Trebilcock, Whitehead with KZF, Steven Schaefer Associates, and Frank Messer and Sons.
Stevens, J. Walter
(St. Paul, Minnesota, 1856-1937)
The architect who won the unprecedented competition for the present Hughes High School at 2515 Clifton Avenue NWC W. McMillan (1908), an important Tudor Revival Collegiate structure later enlarged by Garber & Woodward, with an Annex by Tietig & Lee (1924). The competition was an attempt by the local architectural community to prevent former patronage abuses, but it apparently backfired, because the out-of-town architect carried away the trophy. Cincinnati public schools heeded public sentiment to preserve the landmark building, and in 2008, it was renovated by HGC Construction according to plans by Cole + Russell.
Painter, AIC (2006), 159.
J. Walter Stevens
Hughes High School, 1908-1910
Clifton Avenue and West McMillan Street, Fairview
This impressive structure anchors a busy uptown crossing. It is located opposite the University of Cincinnati College of Law.
Stewart, James R. and Robert W.
Listed in Cincinnati 1911-1956; perhaps Stewart & Son, listed 1947, continued firm. J.R. Stewart was graduated from Harvard in 1905; R.W. Stewart from Kenyon College, Gambier, Oh., in 1908; they seem to have set up practice in Norwood as architects and engineers by 1909.
Stewart, William H.
(York, England, 1832-1907)
Son of a builder and architect, Stewart was apparently brought up in Toronto, Ontario; apprenticed to an architect; immigrated to Chicago in 1857; worked as carpenter in St. Paul, Minn.; came to Cincinnati shortly afterward, but worked in Ohio, Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Arkansas (apparently as a Confederate supporter) in the early years of the Civil War. He returned to Cincinnati in 1862, moved to Covington, Ky., and formed a partnership with William Walter, which lasted until Stewart moved to Canada in 1872. He settled in Toronto as a lumber dealer and architect then moved to Hamilton, Ont., where he practiced with his son Walter Stewart.
William Stewart was a charter member of the Cincinnati Chapter of the AIA in 1870. He, and Walter & Stewart, seem to have been extraordinarily prolific. An 1887 list of major works in the Cincinnati area, including Covington, was recently discovered; it includes major churches for several denominations on both sides of the Ohio River, public schools, theaters and opera houses, commercial buildings, as well as buildings for the Brown Co. (Ohio) Ursuline Convent and the Ohio State Asylum for Imbecile Youths in Columbus. Some of these commissions no doubt reflect Walter's connections, through his father Henry Walter and his own work on the Ohio State House and St. Peter-in-Chains Cathedral in Cincinnati; but it seems likely that Stewart was the main designer; most of the identified works share a bold treatment of Gothic massing and details. Also the Holly Water Works System and the former Amos Shinkle "Castle" on E. Second St. in Covington.
[There was apparently a builder, William Stewart (& Sons), working in Cincinnati at least in the 1880s and '90s, probably not related to the architect.]
Tenkotte and Langsam;
Painter, AIC (2006), 63, 78, 79.
Walter & Stewart
Mother of God Roman Catholic Church (Mutter Gottes Kirche), 1871
119 West Sixth Street, Covington
Mother of God Church, which served a middle- and working-class urban congregation, has some German Romanesque features.
Stickney, Frederick W.
(Lowell, Mass., 1853-1918)
Educated at M.I.T.; practiced in Boston, specializing in school buildings, ca. 1881-1890; ca. 1893 until his death, Stickney was a partner of William D. Austin of Boston. Stickney & Austin designed a residence for J.W. Bullock in Vernonville (S. Avondale), ca. 1896, with Cincinnati architect A.O. Elzner; they also designed a house for George Bullock of Cincinnati in Oyster Bay, L.I. (1894)—an interesting example of the connections between Cincinnati homes and Eastern summer cottages, that deserve further study. Greene & Greene, of Pasadena, California, who were born in Cincinnati, worked for Stickney & Austin in Boston before moving to the West.
Withey (1956, 1970), 574-75;
Mass. COPAR (1984), 63.
Stith, Joseph Earl
(Butler, Ky., 1900-1965)
Studied at the Cincinnati Art Academy under Clement J. Barnhorn; also at the Cincinnati College of Music; UC, B.S. Architecture, 1924 and later, "co-oping" with Kruckemeyer & Strong, Zettel & Rapp, Crowe & Schulte (perhapsone of first architecture co-op classes). UC Department of Architecture, 1929. Worked for Crowe & Schulte 1929-1931; Norwood Sash & Door plant for Sears, Roebuck & Co., ca. 1931-1934; Seagram's Distillery, Lawrenceburg, Ind., 1934-1936; Cincinnati Park Commissioners, 1936-1938; practiced on own, 1938-1942; then U.S. Corps of Engineers. May have practiced on own in 1950s and early ‘60s, producing mostly designs for public buildings such as schools, as well as Protestant churches. Various renderings have been deposited by his daughters Anita Stith Marks, of Cincinnati, and Karen Stith Nulf, of Athens, Ohio, to the Cincinnati Historical Society Library Architectural Drawings Collection (2004).
Family material and list of renderings c/o Beth Sullebarger (2008).
(Eckerssdorf, near Glatz [sic], Prussian Silesia, 1821-1883)
German-born landscape architect; supposedly trained with Hermann Ludwig Heinrich Prince Pückler-Muskau (1785-1881), who became famous for the extraordinary landscapes he created in the parks surrounding his palaces at Branitz and Bad Muskau, and with Joseph Paxton at Chatsworth, in England; brought to Cincinnati, worked with Horticultural Society; laid out much of Spring Grove Cemetery, modifying the original Notman/Daniels plan; also designed a number of other cemeteries in the area, the Eden Park (Mt. Eden) Waterworks grounds, as well as Cincinnati estates, especially in Clifton on the bluff overlooking Spring Grove.
Perhaps the "Temple of Love" in Mt. Storm Park, often attributed to Strauch, was compiled of columns from the former R.B. Bowler house (enlarged by I. Rogers), as according to "Conteur"; see Cincinnati Historical Society.
See also The Western Horticultural Review, published in Cincinnati in the early 1850s; and the Horticultural Review and Botanical Magazine, published by Dr. John Aston Warder; the latter periodical includes the W.B. Smith (later John W. Ellis, Obed J. Wilson, and Allen R. Joslin) House designed by Isaiah Rogers, with picturesque landscaping by Strauch effectively illustrated in lithographs.
[See Birnbaum and Karson for summary of career and importance, as well as an annotated bibliography].
Birnbaum and Karson (2000), 117-19 (by Noel Dorsey Vernon);
Tenner (1878), 34-36;
Langsam (1997), 7, 31, 84;
Painter, AIC (2006), 51, 64, 75, 142;
Tolzman introduction to Ohio Book Store reprint of Spring Grove Cemetery photographic brochure.
Spring Grove Cemetery, 1845
Spring Grove Avenue, Winton Place
The advanced landscape plan of Spring Grove Cemetery was emulated in the United States and Europe in the nineteenth century.
Strauss, Carl A.
One of Cincinnati's finest and most prolific post-War Modernist architects, whose Modernism is always tempered by extreme sensitivity to site, natural and artificial materials, and an understanding of his clients' life styles. Almost all his work was produced with his long-time partner Ray Roush. Most of the firm’s work was residential, with a few notable exceptions, including the Xomox Corporation Headquarters and several schools. Through the University of Cincinnati Co-op system, many talented young architects passed through his office, some (such as Michael Graves) contributing to the gradual evolution and adaptation of his style and approaches. Active in historic preservation and many other worthwhile civic endeavors. Educated at the University School, Cincinnati, 1929; Williams College, Amherst, Mass., B.A., 1933; Harvard School of Architecture, M.A. Arch., 1937; then studied privately in England and throughout the European continent. Worked for H.M. Price, 1937-1942; U.S. Army, Air Corps Intelligence, 1942-1945; then practiced on own and with Ray Roush.
Obituary, Cincinnati Post (1/18/2002);
Obituary, Cincinnati Enquirer (1/19/2002);
Langsam (1997), 3, 5, 107, 117, 125-26, 129-30, 141, 144, 149-51, 155;
Painter, Sullebarger, Merkel, AIC (2006), 112, 123, 157, 212, 276, 277, 281.
Stryker, John P.
Listed 1894-1929. According to a description of Stryker and his home on Considine Avenue (1895) in Price Hill, the Strykers (originally spelt Stroeker) were early settlers of that area in the western hills of Cincinnati overlooking the Ohio River, where J.P. Stryker designed other residences, as well as the St. Lawrence Roman Catholic Church School.
"Price Hill” (1990), 12-13.
Strong, Charles R. (Raymond) ("Chuck")
Son of a wholesale lumber dealer; educated in Cincinnati and M.I.T. (graduated 1911); then associated with an architect in Boston, before traveling and studying in Europe (France, Ireland, Scotland, England, and Belgium) in 1914 with Edward H. Kruckemeyer; they returned to Cincinnati by 1919 (Strong having served in World War I, constructing air-force hangars in England), and practiced together until ca. 1960. Kruckemeyer & Strong designed an important building in Mariemont, the Maketewah Country Club, and a similar funeral home on Central Parkway in Clifton Hills. Strong's experience in England perhaps led to their designing the early phases of Lunken(heimer) Airport in eastern Cincinnati (1927). According to the late George Roth, Strong employed Louis Skidmore (of SOM), who had been teaching manual training, as a draftsman, then encouraged him to attend M.I.T., thus starting his career as an architect. Langsam has a 1927 lithograph of Luxor, Egypt, by Skidmore, signed "To ‘Chuck’ from ‘Skid’”, as well as a European drawing and a sketchbook emphasizing planned communities in Britain (possibly related to the firm‘s work in Mariemont).
Obituary, Cincinnati Enquirer (3/16/1968);
see Walter R. Turner on Lunken Airport (1997);
Sullebarger, AIC (2006), 205.